Meso-America South America

Sipán, Moche Tomb

The city of Sipán dates from 50–700 AD, the same time as the Moche Period.  In 1987 archaeologist Walter Alva discovered the tomb of The Lord of Sipán, an important ruler of the Moche.  Inside the adobe funerary platform is a rectangular chamber with a roof sported by wooden beams.  Although the tomb was added to at various times, the main occupant of each tomb was male, inside a wooden coffin each with grave goods.

The Lord of Sipán was accompanied by seashells, scepters, pectorals, ceramics, textiles and many other luxury items.  Also found were human sacrifices, children and women and men.  The men seem to have been warriors. Other sacrifices were animals such as dogs and camelids.

The Sipán tombs were the first royal burials found in South America.  They were Inca, and archaeologists consider the site to be among the most important discoveries in the past few decades.

Scientific analysis of The Lord of Sipán indicates he was about 5’5″ tall, around 40 years old when he died and the quality if his diet and the wealth of jewelry made of gold, silver, copper indicate he was high ranking.  In Inca society artifacts made of precious metals symbolized the rulers power.


Tikal, City of the Maya

Tikal’s temples rise above the forest canopy, occupying an area of lush jungle in Guatemala. Tikal is one of the best studied Mayan sites, first occupied around 800 BCE.  It’s 988 acre center, including the principal monuments is a World Heritage property.

Wide raised causeways connect the major buildings and served as roadways and also water catchment systems, channeling runoff for the plazas into a reservoir west of the central acropolis.  By the first century Tikal was an agrarian city ruled by Yax Ehb’Xook. The city’s population at this time is thought to be about 60,000.

The central acropolis consists of 46 buildings set around six courtyards along with the royal palace.  The north acropolis contains royal tombs many with commemorative temples.  To the southwest is yet another ceremonial plaza, several of Tikal’s eRly rulers are buried here.  The main structure is a pyramid about 100 feet high with stairways on each side that were once flanked by huge masks.  The Mercador stone found here documents Teotihuacan’s  inquest of the city in 378.

Some of the interiors of the churches are decorated with striking friezes of biblical scenes and bas-reliefs.

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Free Kindle Books 3

Here are a couple more free Kindle books. You can simply ‘buy for $0.00‘ and they’ll be sent to your Amazon account.

Mayan Civilization

Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius

Lemuria, The Lost Continent of the Pacific

It’s another opportunity to read some basic information.

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